Mathematical Symbols

This page is one of several which lists and displays character encoding for use in web pages.  The index below gives access to the appropriate page for groups of characters.

 

Special Symbols

HTML and XHTML and programming languages used on web pages, such as JavaScript, reserve special characters for defined functions.  Escape sequences are required whenever such characters have to be displayed on the page as normal text.

In the following table:

The following list is in order of the greek alphabet, showing for each letter the upper-case followed by the lower-case variant.

  
Symbol DisplayCode NameDecimalHex

Basic operators Almost equal≈ ≈ ≈≈≈
Divide÷ ÷ ÷÷÷
Equal= = ===
Identically equal≡ ≡ ≡≡≡
Less than or equal≤ ≤ ≤≤≤
Minus (arith.)− − −−−
Minus (hyphen)- - ---
Multiply× × ×××
Not equal≠ ≠ ≠≠≠
Plus+ + +++
Similar∼ ∼ ∼∼∼
Square root√ √ √√√

Calculus Differential∂ ∂ ∂∂∂
Integral∫ ∫ ∫∫∫
Product∏ ∏ ∏∏∏
Sum∑ ∑ ∑∑∑

Logical And (logical)∧ ∧ ∧∧∧
Backward dif.∇ ∇ ∇∇∇
Contains∋ ∋ ∋∋∋
Exists∃ ∃ ∃∃∃
Intersection∩ ∩ ∩∩∩
Membership∈ ∈ ∈∈∈
Or (logical)∨ ∨ ∨∈∨
Proportional to∝ ∝ ∝∝∝
Subset of⊂ ⊂ ⊂⊂⊂
Subset or equal⊆ ⊆ ⊆⊆⊆
Superset of⊃ ⊃ ⊃⊃⊃
Superset or equal⊇ ⊇ ⊇⊇⊇
Therefore∴ ∴ ∴∴∴
Union∪ ∪ ∪∪∪
Varies with∼ ∼ ∼∼∼

Numbers 1/4¼ ¼ ¼¼¼
1/2½ ½ ½½½
3/4¾ ¾ ¾¾¾
Infinity∞ ∞ ∞∞∞
Plus or minus± ± ±±±
Point· · ···

 
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John Goodman